Flora

TANJUNG PANDAN WEATHER

Asplundia Flavovaginata

Famili: Cyclanthaceae
Genera: Asplundia
Spesies: flavovaginata

This is highland tropical rain forest plant. It has visible cover on the leaves. The Epiphyllic Cover Density (ECD) mostly depends on age and elevation (Binkowski & Nowak, 2008). However, in this geosite, ECD is only influenced by age. These plants can be found at Limbongan Moss Hill Geosite.

Flora
Flora

Sematophyllum Rheophyticum

Famili : Sematophyllaceae
Marga: Sematophyllum
Spesies: rheophyticum

The largest pantropical genus at 170 accepted species (Crosby et al, 2000). This species is controlled by geological attributes such as rock, topography profile, distance to the continent, and age. The quartzite, as a sedimentar rock, and the heavy minerals are responsible for the moss to grow well (Hedderson et al, 2014). This rock obviusly occurred in the continent. The steep slope can allow the water flowing quikcly which is the best habitat for this species. This rock formation is situated far away from the other continents and was the oldest rock in the Belitung Island which has no activ volcanism for a long time (Shevock et al, 2017). These plants can be found at Limbongan Moss Hill Geosite.

Dendrobium Sonia

Famili : Orchidaceae
Marga: Dendrobus
Spesies: Sonia

This tropical orchid species inhabitants in athe warm, humid, and low sunlight conditions. This has been know as the second largest species of Orchidaceae family which has over one thousand species. The high Nitrat and Kalium are responsible for flowering and the Phospor contents can support the blooming (Naik & Bharati, 2016). The nitrat, kalium, posphor come from the tuffaceous rocks as a part of the Kelapa Kampit Formation and feldsfar as a weathering result from Adamelite Baginda. These plants can be found at Limbongan Moss Hill Geosite.

Flora
Flora

Neofinetia Falcata

Neofinetia Falcata
Family : Orchidaceae
Genera: Neofinetia
Species: falcata

This is well-known as Japanese or Samurai orchid which one of the first orchid for the cultivation. This plant needs temperature ranging from 26 – 31 degrees Celcius in day and 18 – 23 degrees Celcius in a night. The sunlight, high humidity, and water are obviusly required. This plant inhabitants generally on the branch of fern tree which attaches in the right position to avoid bacterias from the water on its bottom of leaves. These plants can be found at Limbongan Moss Hill Geosite.

Pellacalyx Axillaris


Pellacalyx axillaris is a deciduous tree with stifly horizontal branches; it can grow up to 27 metres tall. The straight, rather slender bole is up to 60cm in diameter, sometimes witl small buttresses up to 100cm high. When growing in swampy ground it develops loop-like breathing roots like some mangrove trees.

A sub-canopy tree in pine forest, evergreen forest or open degraded forests; at elevations from 200 – 500 metres. Usually found on alluvial sites and along rivers and streams on sandy to clay soils, These plants can be found at The Kuale Granite Mangrove Forest & The Juru Seberang Tin Off-shore Foremer Geosites.

Flora
Flora

Combretocarpus Rotundatus Dans


Tumih (Combretocarpus Rotundatus (Miq.) Danser) is one of local species which is recommended for rehabilitation of disturbed peatland area. This species is classified as fast growing species and tolerant to dry and open area, thus suitable for pioneer plant of rehabilitation efforts in peat swamp forest. These plants can be found at The Granite Forest Peramun Hill Geosite.

Sonneratia Alba J.E. Sm

Trees are always green, grow scattered, altitude sometimes up to 15 m. Bark is dark white to brown, with smooth longitudinal slits. The root is in the form of a cable under the ground and appears as a blunt cone surface and reaches a height of 25 cm. These plants can be found at The Kuale Granite Mangrove Forest & The Juru Seberang Tin Off-shore Foremer Geosites.

Flora
Flora

Rhizophora Apiculata

Trees with a height reaching 30 m with a trunk diameter reaching 50 cm. Has a unique root until it reaches a height of 5 meters, and sometimes has roots of air coming out of the branches. The bark is dark gray and changes. These plants can be found at The Kuale Granite Mangrove Forest & The Juru Seberang Tin Off-shore Foremer Geosites.

Brugaiera Gymnorrhiza Lamk

Medium size up to 20m tall which has kneed roots. The reddish flowers are clustered in whole trees (Robs, 2018). These plants can be found at The Kuale Granite Mangrove Forest & The Juru Seberang Tin Off-shore Foremer Geosites.

Flora
Flora

Ceriops Tagal

The small trees of mangrove with the solid crown, however, it can reach 40m tall and 40cm diameter. They can be used for tanine, dyes, medicines, and fuel. Those populations have dropped 18% since 1980 (Robs, 2018). These plants can be found at The Cendil Tropical Heath Forest Geosite.

Tumbuhan Parasit Nephenthes spp

Nepenthes is the largest genus of pitcher group classified as a carnivorous plant which has 139 species worldwide. The most species is found in Southeast Asia which Indonesia has recorded 68 species. 
The pitcher plants in Belitong grow is categorized as a lowland species more or less (1.000masl) which consits of 4 species. Three species has been found on the Cendil Tropical Heath Forest Geosite such as N. Gracilis, N. Mirabilis, and N. Rafflesiana (Clarkem 2006, Rizqiani et al, 2018).

This flora is classified as an endangered species by IUCN which was protected by act No. 5 about Conservation of Biological Resources and their Ecosystems and Government Regulation Number 7 of 1999 concerning Preservation of Plants and Animals. These plants can be found at The Cendil Tropical Heath Forest Geosite.

Flora
Flora

N. Rafflesiana

The well developed in the high acidic & sand soil with an impermeable property. These plants can be found at The Cendil Tropical Heath Forest Geosite.

N. Mirabilis

The most tolerance species found in disturbed, grassland, high temperature and water contents shrubs in open or shaded area, These plants can be found at The Cendil Tropical Heath Forest Geosite.

Flora
Flora

Drosera burmanii

Drosera Burmanii is the annual insect consumption plant which grows in the low nitrogen condition, acidic and swampy soils. This plant distributes in Southeast Asia, China, Japan, and India. It contains phytochemicals to act as immunomodulators, anti-spasmodics, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antioxidants, and are used for curing various infectious diseases (Jarayam & Prasad, 2007). These plants can be found at The Cendil Tropical Heath Forest Geosite.

Renggadaian – Ploiarium Alternifolium

This tree is a woody shrub or small tree with an anchor roots shape on the peat soils. This has a regeneration leaves with no stick. It can grow in the degraded soil in Heath forest. 

The wood can be used as timber and leaves can be used for shampoo and ingredient and the roots can be used for mothers after childbirth while the young leaves engulfed as vegetables and used as diarrhea medicine. This tree can also be used to treat many diseases which contains alkaloid, flavonoid, polifenol, and saponin such as anticancer (Subro, 2015). These plants can be found at The Cendil Tropical Heath Forest Geosite.

Flora
Flora

Sekuncong (Syzygium buxifolium)

This genus is ‘Syzygium’ meaning the non- paired leaves, from ‘syzygos’ (Greek for ‘joined’). The species epithet ‘buxifolium’ means “box-leafed”, meaning similar like Buxus species (Box). It has a small tree up to 4.5m tall which grows with small leaves with a blunt tipped. The leaves have a dark green and young reddish. 


Well growing in open area, well water and humid conditions. These plants can be found at The Cendil Tropical Heath Forest Geosite.

Sapu Padang – Baeckea frutescend

This plant is family of Myrtacea and sub-family of Myrtoideae. This is the evergreen shrubs or small trees which it reaches 8 m tall. It mostly grows as a pygmy with a very thin leaves. Those leaves can produce the aromatherapy to treat the fever and mental disorder.


Razmavar et al,(2014) investigated the crude trees using the pythochemical screening which it contains flavonoid dan alkoloid compounds. The flavonoid content can disturb the tumor growth and gastrointentenstinal infections while alkaloid can treat malaria, analgesic, and stimulants.These plants can be found at The Cendil Tropical Heath Forest Geosite

Flora

Asplundia Flavovaginata

Famili: Cyclanthaceae
Genera: Asplundia
Spesies: flavovaginata

This is highland tropical rain forest plant. It has visible cover on the leaves. The Epiphyllic Cover Density (ECD) mostly depends on age and elevation (Binkowski & Nowak, 2008). However, in this geosite, ECD is only influenced by age. These plants can be found at Limbongan Moss Hill Geosite.

Flora

Sematophyllum Rheophyticum


Famili : Sematophyllaceae
Marga: Sematophyllum
Spesies: rheophyticum

The largest pantropical genus at 170 accepted species (Crosby et al, 2000). This species is controlled by geological attributes such as rock, topography profile, distance to the continent, and age. The quartzite, as a sedimentar rock, and the heavy minerals are responsible for the moss to grow well (Hedderson et al, 2014). This rock obviusly occurred in the continent. The steep slope can allow the water flowing quikcly which is the best habitat for this species. This rock formation is situated far away from the other continents and was the oldest rock in the Belitung Island which has no activ volcanism for a long time (Shevock et al, 2017). These plants can be found at Limbongan Moss Hill Geosite.

Flora

Dendrobium Sonia

Famili : Orchidaceae
Marga: Dendrobus
Spesies: Sonia

This tropical orchid species inhabitants in athe warm, humid, and low sunlight conditions. This has been know as the second largest species of Orchidaceae family which has over one thousand species. The high Nitrat and Kalium are responsible for flowering and the Phospor contents can support the blooming (Naik & Bharati, 2016). The nitrat, kalium, posphor come from the tuffaceous rocks as a part of the Kelapa Kampit Formation and feldsfar as a weathering result from Adamelite Baginda. These plants can be found at Limbongan Moss Hill Geosite.

Flora

Neofinetia Falcata

Family : Orchidaceae
Genera: Neofinetia
Species: falcata

This is well-known as Japanese or Samurai orchid which one of the first orchid for the cultivation. This plant needs temperature ranging from 26 – 31 degrees Celcius in day and 18 – 23 degrees Celcius in a night. The sunlight, high humidity, and water are obviusly required. This plant inhabitants generally on the branch of fern tree which attaches in the right position to avoid bacterias from the water on its bottom of leaves. These plants can be found at Limbongan Moss Hill Geosite.

Flora

Pellacalyx Axillaris

Pellacalyx axillaris is a deciduous tree with stifly horizontal branches; it can grow up to 27 metres tall. The straight, rather slender bole is up to 60cm in diameter, sometimes witl small buttresses up to 100cm high. When growing in swampy ground it develops loop-like breathing roots like some mangrove trees.

A sub-canopy tree in pine forest, evergreen forest or open degraded forests; at elevations from 200 – 500 metres. Usually found on alluvial sites and along rivers and streams on sandy to clay soils, These plants can be found at The Kuale Granite Mangrove Forest & The Juru Seberang Tin Off-shore Foremer Geosites.

Flora

Combretocarpus Rotundatus Dans

Tumih (Combretocarpus Rotundatus (Miq.) Danser) is one of local species which is recommended for rehabilitation of disturbed peatland area. This species is classified as fast growing species and tolerant to dry and open area, thus suitable for pioneer plant of rehabilitation efforts in peat swamp forest. These plants can be found at The Granite Forest Peramun Hill Geosite.

Flora

Sonneratia Alba J.E. Sm

Trees are always green, grow scattered, altitude sometimes up to 15 m. Bark is dark white to brown, with smooth longitudinal slits. The root is in the form of a cable under the ground and appears as a blunt cone surface and reaches a height of 25 cm. These plants can be found at The Kuale Granite Mangrove Forest & The Juru Seberang Tin Off-shore Foremer Geosites.

Flora

Rhizophora Apiculata

Trees with a height reaching 30 m with a trunk diameter reaching 50 cm. Has a unique root until it reaches a height of 5 meters, and sometimes has roots of air coming out of the branches. The bark is dark gray and changes. These plants can be found at The Kuale Granite Mangrove Forest & The Juru Seberang Tin Off-shore Foremer Geosites.

Flora

Brugaiera Gymnorrhiza Lamk

Medium size up to 20m tall which has kneed roots. The reddish flowers are clustered in whole trees (Robs, 2018). These plants can be found at The Kuale Granite Mangrove Forest & The Juru Seberang Tin Off-shore Foremer Geosites.

Flora

Ceriops Tagal

The small trees of mangrove with the solid crown, however, it can reach 40m tall and 40cm diameter. They can be used for tanine, dyes, medicines, and fuel. Those populations have dropped 18% since 1980 (Robs, 2018). These plants can be found at The Cendil Tropical Heath Forest Geosite.

Flora

Tumbuhan Parasit Nephenthes spp

Nepenthes is the largest genus of pitcher group classified as a carnivorous plant which has 139 species worldwide. The most species is found in Southeast Asia which Indonesia has recorded 68 species. 
The pitcher plants in Belitong grow is categorized as a lowland species more or less (1.000masl) which consits of 4 species. Three species has been found on the Cendil Tropical Heath Forest Geosite such as N. Gracilis, N. Mirabilis, and N. Rafflesiana (Clarkem 2006, Rizqiani et al, 2018).

This flora is classified as an endangered species by IUCN which was protected by act No. 5 about Conservation of Biological Resources and their Ecosystems and Government Regulation Number 7 of 1999 concerning Preservation of Plants and Animals. These plants can be found at The Cendil Tropical Heath Forest Geosite.

Flora

N. Rafflesiana

The well developed in the high acidic & sand soil with an impermeable property. These plants can be found at The Cendil Tropical Heath Forest Geosite.

Flora

N. Mirabilis

The most tolerance species found in disturbed, grassland, high temperature and water contents shrubs in open or shaded area, These plants can be found at The Cendil Tropical Heath Forest Geosite.

Flora

Drosera burmanii

Drosera Burmanii is the annual insect consumption plant which grows in the low nitrogen condition, acidic and swampy soils. This plant distributes in Southeast Asia, China, Japan, and India. It contains phytochemicals to act as immunomodulators, anti-spasmodics, anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, antiinflammatory, antioxidants, and are used for curing various infectious diseases (Jarayam & Prasad, 2007). These plants can be found at The Cendil Tropical Heath Forest Geosite.

Flora

Renggadaian – Ploiarium Alternifolium

This tree is a woody shrub or small tree with an anchor roots shape on the peat soils. This has a regeneration leaves with no stick. It can grow in the degraded soil in Heath forest. 

The wood can be used as timber and leaves can be used for shampoo and ingredient and the roots can be used for mothers after childbirth while the young leaves engulfed as vegetables and used as diarrhea medicine. This tree can also be used to treat many diseases which contains alkaloid, flavonoid, polifenol, and saponin such as anticancer (Subro, 2015). These plants can be found at The Cendil Tropical Heath Forest Geosite.

Flora

Sekuncong (Syzygium buxifolium)

This genus is ‘Syzygium’ meaning the non- paired leaves, from ‘syzygos’ (Greek for ‘joined’). The species epithet ‘buxifolium’ means “box-leafed”, meaning similar like Buxus species (Box). It has a small tree up to 4.5m tall which grows with small leaves with a blunt tipped. The leaves have a dark green and young reddish. 

Well growing in open area, well water and humid conditions. These plants can be found at The Cendil Tropical Heath Forest Geosite.

Flora

Sapu Padang – Baeckea Frutescend

This plant is family of Myrtacea and sub-family of Myrtoideae. This is the evergreen shrubs or small trees which it reaches 8 m tall. It mostly grows as a pygmy with a very thin leaves. Those leaves can produce the aromatherapy to treat the fever and mental disorder.

Razmavar et al,(2014) investigated the crude trees using the pythochemical screening which it contains flavonoid dan alkoloid compounds. The flavonoid content can disturb the tumor growth and gastrointentenstinal infections while alkaloid can treat malaria, analgesic, and stimulants.These plants can be found at The Cendil Tropical Heath Forest Geosite

Flora
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